In modern times, some Latin rite dioceses have been established in the Middle East, generally in the form of Apostolic vicariates i. Today, the two most important Latin dioceses in the Middle East, in terms of the number of faithful, are undoubtedly the Apostolic vicariate of Northern and Southern Arabia; in the Holy Land the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem was reestablished in it extends its jurisdiction on Israel and Palestine, but also Jordan — where the majority of the faithful live — and Cyprus.
In , in the ecumenical spirit of the Second Vatican Council, Paul VI abolished the three other Latin Patriarchates established by the Crusaders in the East, which had been purely honorific since centuries: Constantinople, Alexandria and Antioch before , the latter had therefore a sixth titular.
Christians in the Middle East: a Guide
After the Protestant Reformation, also Anglicans and Lutherans instituted their own hierarchy in the Middle East . From the nineteenth century onwards, several American denominations, Presbyterians in particular, started an intense missionary activity, having its cornerstone in the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut established in , now the American University of Beirut .
Also the American University in Cairo established in traces its roots to the Protestant missions, although it took almost immediately a non-confessional orientation. While mainline Protestant denominations have lost much of their dynamism by now, numerous evangelical communities are significantly growing in the Middle East and North Africa.
We can summarize this intricate story looking at the current situation of the Catholic Church in the Middle East thus excluding Ethiopia and India.
In this region of the world, Catholics are divided into seven rites , each organized around a Patriarch, who is appointed by the council of Bishops synod but is confirmed by the Pope. These rites — and their corresponding churches — are, following the order of presentation:. To these churches, we must add the communities born out of the reform: Lutherans, Anglicans and, lately, various Pentecostal denominations.
Christianity - Church and state in Eastern and Western theology | agloutocombu.gq
Lastly, it is important to point out that each of these historic churches, both Catholic and non-Catholic, has developed a large diaspora , particularly in Europe, the Americas and Australia, which has organized itself into dioceses. This is the case of the Coptic Orthodox Diocese of Milan, for instance. At the apex of the Christological controversies, the three churches fought harshly each other, labeling the adversaries with insulting titles Melkites, Nestorians, Jacobites .
Today, after almost a century of ecumenism, t he Churches of the Middle East have reached a more shared memory of these events , the exact contents of which are beyond the understanding of most of the faithful. The role played by communication difficulties in the pre-modern age should not be underestimated, too.
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In its highest expressions, it embodies the ideal of unity within diversity, an ideal that has been able to survive hard times of persecution one can just think of the massacres of the Maronites in in Lebanon and Syria, of the recurrent attacks on the Copts or the Armenian and Syriac genocide during the first World War. And yet, it must be recognized that such wealth has now become a burden that threatens the very survival of these communities.
In light of the developments of recent years, it is perhaps appropriate to ask whether the second tragic alternative has not gotten dangerously close. It is permissible to hope that this development will lead to a re-reading of a history that, to be sure, is made of divisions, but also and foremost of the desire to remain faithful to the Gospel in an often-hostile context. Alexander Treiger and Samuel Noble ed. This union, however, only lasted for few decades.
In the text of Chalcedon, the Roman See is explicitly referred to as guarantor of orthodoxy. The two patriarchates are autonomous, though they do recognize the role of Etchmiadzin on ecclesial matters of general interest. Among its effects, the division of the Patriarchate of Aquileia into two branches hence the patriarchal title given to Grado and then Venice and the special bond between Como and Aquileia. It is still Justinian who imposed by law the pentarchy model, centered on five main patriarchates: Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
The first printing house with Arab characters in the Ottoman Empire — thus without taking into account the works already printed in Europe, in particular in Rome and Leiden — opened in Aleppo in , following the initiative of Melkite Patriarch Athanasius IV Dabbas. Among them, Antioch has the greatest number of faithful and is the only one with an entirely Arab hierarchy, while Jerusalem and Alexandria have their patriarchs sent from Greece.
In this moment, the Orthodox Patriarchs of Jerusalem and Antioch are divided on an issue of jurisdiction concerning the Orthodox community in Qatar. David M. Anderson ed. Kratchkovsky et A. Hymns of the Russian church, being translations, centos, and suggestions from the Greek office books,. Offices from the service-books of the Holy Eastern Church.choisporaqaror.gq
The 1913 Kikuyu Conference, Anglo-Catholics and the Church of England
Hymns of the early church, translated from Greek and Latin sources; together with translations from a later period; centos and suggestions from the Greek; and several original pieces,. Hymns from East and West; being translations from the poetry of the Latin and Greek churches, arranged in the order of the Christian year. With hymns for Sunday and week-days. A harmony of Anglican doctrine with the doctrine of the catholic and apostolic church of the East : being the longer Russian catechism : with an appendix consisting of notes and extracts from Scottish and Anglican authorities.
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